History of Israel: Timeline

HISTORY of Israel: Timeline

  •   Timeline of Historical Highlights
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    Ancient map of Israel Ancient map of Israel Copyright: Israel MFA
     
     
     
    Section of an illuminated late-medieval map of the Tribes of Israel (Courtesy R. Ben-Haim)  

     

    Note: The 2010 edition is currently available only in English. Links to other languages are to previous editions.


     
    '​זכר ימות עולם בינו שנות דור ודור... - דברים פרק ל"ב פסוק ז

    Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations... (Deuteronomy 32:7)


    The birthplace of the Jewish people is the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael). There, a significant part of the nation's long history was enacted, of which the first thousand years are recorded in the Bible; there, its cultural, religious, and national identity was formed; and there, its physical presence has been maintained through the centuries, even after the majority was forced into exile. During the many years of dispersion, the Jewish people never severed nor forgot its bond with the Land. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Jewish independence, l​ost 2,000 years earlier, was renewed.


    Archeology in Israel  involves the systematic investigation of all the remains of the country's past - from prehistory to the end of Ottoman rule. The profusion of material remains is evidence of the many cultures that have left their imprint on the Land.


    Above all archeological research clearly reveals the historical link between the Jewish people, the Bible and the Land of Israel, uncovering the remains of the cultural heritage of the Jewish people in its homeland. These visible remains, buried in the soil, constitute the physical link between the past, the present and the future of the Jewish people in its country.


    This unbroken chain of history can be observed at sites all over the country. Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, has been the focus of extensive archeological activity and remains of 5,000 years of history have been revealed.

     

     



    TIMELINE OF HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS


    17th-6th C. BCE BIBLICAL TIMES
    (BCE - Before the Common Era)

    c.17th century

     

     

     
    Drawings by
    Noam Nadav

     

    Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel.
    Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt.
    c.13th century Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.
    Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.
    13th-12th
    centuries
    Israelites settle in the Land of Israel
    c.1020 Jewish monarchy established; Saul, first king.
    c.1000 Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom.
    c.960 First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.
    c. 930 Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel
    722-720 Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
    586

    Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled.


    THE SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD
    538-142 Persian and Hellenistic periods
    538-515 Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.
    332 Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.
    166-160

    Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple
    142-129 Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
    129-63 Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
    63 Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.
     

    63 BCE-313
    CE

    Roman rule
    63-4 BCE

    Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel;
    Temple in Jerusalem refurbished

    (CE - The Common Era)
    c. 20-33 Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth
    66 Jewish revolt against the Romans
    70 Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.
    73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
    132-135 Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
    c. 210 Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishna) completed.
     
    FOREIGN DOMINATION
    313-636 Byzantine rule
    c. 390 Commentary on the Mishna (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.
    614 Persian invasion
     
    636-1099 Arab rule
    691 On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik.
     
    1099-1291 Crusader domination
    (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)
     
    1291-1516 Mamluk rule
     
    1517-1917 Ottoman rule
    1564 Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published.
    1860 First neighborhood built outside walls of Jerusalem's Old City.
    1882-1903 First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.
    1897

    First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
    1904-14 Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.
    1909 First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.
    1917 400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest;
    British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine"
     

    1918-48

    British rule
    1919-23 Third Aliya, mainly from Russia
    1920 Histadrut (General Federation of Labor) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
    Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (Yishuv) to conduct its affairs.
    1921 First moshav (cooperative village), Nahalal, founded.
    1922 Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations; Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one fourth for the Jewish national home.
    Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.
    1924

    Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
    1924-32 Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.
    1925 Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mount Scopus.
    1929 Hebron Jews massacred by Arab terrorists.
    1931 Etzel, Jewish underground organization, founded.
    1933-39 Fifth Aliya, mainly from Germany.
    1936-39 Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab terrorists.
    1939 Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
    1939-45 World War II; Holocaust in Europe.
    1941 Lehi underground movement formed; Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.
    1944 Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.
    1947 UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land.
     
    STATE OF ISRAEL
    1948

    End of British Mandate (14 May)
    State of Israel proclaimed (14 May).
    Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May).
    Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established.

    War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949).

    1949

    Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
    Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
    First Knesset
    (parliament) elected.
    Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.

    1948-52

    Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.
    1956 Sinai Campaign
    1962 Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.
    1964

    National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.
    1967

    Six-Day War; Jerusalem reunited.
    1968-70 Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel
    1973 Yom Kippur War
    1975 Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.
    1977 Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule.
    Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
    1978 Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
    1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
    Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
    1981 Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative.
    1982 Israel's three-stage withdrawal from Sinai Peninsula completed.
    Operation Peace for Galilee removes  Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) terrorists from Lebanon.
    1984 National unity government (Likud and Labor) formed after elections.
    Operation Moses, immigration of Jews from Ethiopia.
    1985 Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.
    1987 Widespread violence (Intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.
    1988 Likud government wins elections.
    1989

    Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.
    Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.
    1991 Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war.
    Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid;
    Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia
    .
    1992 Diplomatic relations established with China and India.
    New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor Party.
    1993 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people (Oslo Accords).
    1994




    Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
    Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
    Morocco and Tunisia interest offices
     
    set up.
    Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
    Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.

    1995 Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected.
    Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
    Shimon Peres becomes prime minister.
    1996 Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates.
    Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hizbullah terrorists' attacks on northern Israel.
    Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar.
    Likud forms government after Knesset elections.
    Binyamin Netanyahu elected prime minister.
    Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.
    1997 Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.
    1998

    Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.
    Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement.
    1999 Ehud Barak (left-wing One Israel party) elected prime minister; forms coalition government.
    Israel and the PLO sign the Sharm-el-Sheikh Memorandum.
    2000 Visit of Pope Paul II.
    Israel withdraws from the Security Zone in southern Lebanon.
    Israel admitted to UN Western European and Others Group.
    Renewed violence (Second Intifada). Prime Minister Barak resigns.
    2001 Ariel Sharon (Likud) elected Prime Minister; forms broad-based unity government.
    The Sharm-el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee report (Mitchell Report) issued.
    Palestinian-Israeli Security Implementation Work Plan (Tenet ceasefire plan) proposed.
    Rechavam Ze'evy, Minister of Tourism, assassinated by Palestinian terrorists.

    2002

    Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield in response to massive Palestinian terrorist attacks.
    Israel begins building the anti-terrorist fence to stop West Bank terrorists from killing Israeli citizens.
    Prime Minister Sharon disperses the Knesset, calling for new elections to be held on 28 January 2003.

    2003

    Right-of-center coalition government formed by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.
    Israel accepts the Roadmap.

    2005

    Israel carries out the Disengagement Plan, ending Israel's presence in the Gaza Strip. 

    2006

    After Prime Minister Sharon suffers a stroke, Ehud Olmert becomes acting prime minister.
    Following elections on 28 March, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert forms new government led by the Kadima Party.
    Israel carried out military operations against Palestinian terrorists in Gaza after kidnapping of Israeli soldier.
    The Second War in Lebanon, during which Israel carried out military operations against Hizbullah terrorism from southern Lebanon, following missile attacks and kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers.

    2007

    Shimon Peres elected President by the Knesset.
    Israel declares Gaza "hostile territory" following Hamas violent takeover of Gaza Strip.

    2008

    Israel celebrates its 60th anniversary.
    Israel launches its Gaza Operation (Operation Cast Lead) in response to the barrage of over 10,000 rockets and mortars fired from the Gaza Strip.

    2009

    Benjamin Netanyahu is elected Prime Minister in national elections held in February 2009, and forms a broad-based coalition government
    The city of Tel Aviv celebrates its 100th anniversary.

    2010

    Israel joins the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

     

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