Israel stands at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa. Geographically,
it belongs to the Asian continent. Its western border is the Mediterranean Sea.
To the north it is bound by Lebanon and Syria, to the east by Jordan and to the
south by the Red Sea and Egypt. Long and narrow in shape, Israel is about 290
miles (470 km.) long and 85 miles (135 km.) across at its widest point. Its
total area is 22,072 sq km, of which 21,643 sq km is land area (Sea of Galilee:
164 sq km; Dead Sea: 265 sq km). Israel's total land border measures 857 km, its
Mediterranean coastline 194 km, and 12 km on the Red Sea.
river in Israel: The Jordan River, approximately 250 km.
streams: Alexander, Besor, Hadera, Yarqon, Sa'ar, Qishon, and Soreq.
|Plains and valleys
|Mt. Hermon, Golan - highest point in
|Mt. Meron, Upper Galilee
|Mt. Ramon, Negev
|Mt. of Olives, Jerusalem
|Mt. Tabor, Lower Galilee
|Mt. Carmel, Haifa
|Dead Sea - lowest point on earth
|| - 1,368 ft.
|| - 417 m.|
Raw materials for construction of buildings and roads: gravel and
stone, sand, kurkar, clay, limestone, gypsum, and tuff.
Raw materials for
manufacturing: potash, bromine, magnesium, salt, phosphates, sand, clay,
Energy sources: natural gas, oil shale.
Israel is on a "climatic crossroad", which is a transitional area between a
temperate and arid climate. The southern and eastern areas of Israel are
characterized by an arid climate, while the other areas are characterized by a
Mediterranean climate. Due to this climatic formation, there is high variability
in the amount of precipitation from year to year, and in the different areas of
The highest temperature ever recorded in Israel was 54°C (Tirat
Zvi on 21 June 1942)
The lowest temperature ever recorded in Israel was
-13.7°C (Bet Netofa Valley on 7 February 1950)