In May 1989, Israel presented a new peace initiative. The breakup of the Soviet Union and the Gulf War produced a change in the basic political order of the Middle East, prompting the Arab world to reassess its attitude toward Israel and to enter into negotiations to build a new future for the Middle East.
In October 1991, a conference was convened in Madrid to inaugurate direct peace talks. Subsequently, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinians, as well as multilateral talks on key regional issues. These talks culminated in the signing of a Treaty of Peace between Israel and Jordan on October 26, 1994, and a series of interim agreements with the Palestinians.
The failure of the Camp David Summit in July 2000 virtually brought an end to bilateral peace talks between Israel and the Palestinians for seven years. In 2007, talks were resumed under the framework of the Roadmap for a permanent two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict put forward by US President George Bush. An international conference convened in Annapolis on November 27, 2007 to relaunch the negotiating process, towards the realization of the two-state vision.
In June 2009, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu presented his vision of peace with the Palestinians based on the principles of recognition and demilitarization. While Israel remains dedicated to direct negotiations as the only method of resolving the conflict, the Palestinian leadership has embarked on the path of unilateral action, preferring to attempt to force their will on Israel through international pressure.